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Billions of Messages According to Minute Over TCP/IP


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Key Takeaways

  • Information consistency is significant when speaking between tool elements on other machines to make sure data stays in tact.
  • Low-latency information alternate calls for a distinct method than not unusual codecs.
  • Chronicle’s open-source Cord library supplies a extremely effective approach of marshalling and unmarshalling information for transmission to and from Chronicle Queue.
  • Fresh additions to the library prolong its use with TCP/IP communications channels, providing extraordinarily excessive throughput.
  • The usage of Cord throughout TCP/IP opens up the potential of Cloud Local deployment of Chronicle-based packages.

One of the necessary problems when development allotted packages is that of information illustration. We will have to make certain that information despatched by means of an element to a “far off” part (i.e. person who is a part of a distinct job) is gained appropriately, with the similar values. This may increasingly appear easy however needless to say the speaking elements could have been written in utterly other languages. Issues are difficult additional once we believe that other {hardware}/machine architectures are prone to have other ways of representing the “identical” values. Merely copying bytes from one part to every other isn’t sufficient. Even in Java, the place we would possibly believe ourselves “safe” from this sort of scenario, there’s no requirement that two other JVM implementations or other variations from the similar supplier use the similar inner illustration for gadgets.

The most typical option to this drawback is to outline a “canonical” illustration of information this is understood between processes – even between programming languages – and feature information translated into this layout ahead of sending after which again into the receiver’s personal layout as soon as gained. A number of such “twine codecs” exist, starting from text-based requirements equivalent to YAML, JSON or XML, to binary choices equivalent to Protobuf that incorporate metadata or are utterly uncooked.

At Chronicle Instrument we’ve advanced various libraries to toughen the development of packages which are optimised for low latency messaging, essentially within the monetary services and products trade. We offer bespoke resolution building and consultancy to shoppers, the vast majority of whom are within the monetary space, from everywhere the sector. 

This kind of libraries, Chronicle Cord, supplies high-performance transformations of state in Java gadgets between their inner JVM illustration and a layout that permits that state to be continued or communicated to every other Java job.  

Chronicle Cord grew from the Chronicle Queue mission, which gives unmarried digit microsecond latencies for messaging between JVMs at the identical system, or strong latencies of tens of microseconds between machines, as throughput scales to thousands and thousands of messages consistent with 2nd. Cord now bureaucracy a key a part of many of the tool elements advanced by means of Chronicle, with makes use of from serialisation and deserialisation of object state for communique between elements to an effective fashion for managing the configuration of those elements.

As tool architectures increasingly more practice a allotted, event-based method, we wish to extend the gap wherein Chronicle Cord can be utilized, to toughen TCP/IP interconnections between elements. This text supplies a elementary assessment of the options that can be to be had and a few easy examples of the way they are able to be used. 

We’re already seeing some startling functionality figures for this elementary method – in a benchmark described in Peter Lawrey’s article Java is Very Speedy, If You Do not Create Many Items, as an example, which is constructed upon loopback TCP/IP networking on a unmarried system, we had been ready to go over 4 billion occasions consistent with minute. 

We benchmarked this towards an identical applied sciences used for information exchanges, particularly Jackson and BSON. In a take a look at processing 100 byte messages, the 99.99 percentile processing per-message processing time used to be about 10.5 microseconds with Chronicle Cord compares to 1400 microseconds with Jaskcon/BSON. It is a important distinction.

Right here we provide an creation to the important thing ideas used to understand this. We’re, alternatively, designing those options to be versatile in addition to performant, and long term articles will display some extra complex use instances.

About Chronicle Cord

Chronicle Cord exists as a layer between an utility and a byte flow, performing as a supply or sink of information. Cord will serialise (marshal) the state of a Java object and retailer the ensuing layout to the byte flow, or it is going to learn a series of bytes from the byte flow and deserialise (unmarshal) those right into a Java object founded most effective on data carried within the message.

Let’s take a look at a easy instance.  We can simulate the persisting of a Java object by means of serialising its state to the Cord, and studying it again right into a separate object. We’ll use a category known as Individual.

public magnificence Individual extends SelfDescribingMarshallable {
   personal String identify;
   personal lengthy timestampNS;
   personal lengthy userName;


The whole code for the category can also be discovered within the Chronicle Cord Github repo.

The father or mother kind SelfDescribingMarshallable accommodates the essential capability to engage with Cord – it’s loosely an identical to the java.io.Serializable tagging interface used with Java serialisation, despite the fact that it’s a lot more tough and does now not include safety flaws. Because the identify suggests, a SelfDescribingMarshallable object calls for no further amenities to toughen marshalling and unmarshalling – equivalent to a schema for XML, or code generator for Protobuf or SBE. Moreover, the interface supplies implementations of “core” Java information object strategies equals(), hashcode() and toString()

The annotation @NanoTime is utilized by Chronicle Cord to encode the valuables worth maximum successfully as a timestamp, and @Base85 is used to encode quick strings in a space-efficient method. Each annotations additionally supply conversions shape their compact inner representations to pleasant String representations for his or her respective values.

Let’s arrange an example of Chronicle Cord that may marshall and unmarshall to/from YAML, the use of a space of reminiscence allotted at the Java heap. 

Cord yWire = Cord.newYamlWireOnHeap();

To create and initialise an example of the Individual magnificence we’d write: 

Individual p1 = new Individual()
       .identify("George Ball")
Machine.out.println("p1: " + p1);

We use overloaded strategies and a float taste,  slightly than get…() and set…() strategies, for gaining access to and mutating homes. Output from the code displays the initialised state of the Individual object, demonstrating the toString() way from the SelfDescribingMarshallable father or mother kind:

p1: !Individual {
  identify: George Ball,
  timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:11:26.1922124,
  userName: georgeb

Now we serialise the article to the Cord. Because the Cord has been created to make use of textual content/YAML, its contents can simply be displayed:

Cord yWire = Cord.newYamlWireOnHeap();

We will see the homes serialised accurately:

identify: George Ball
timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:11:54.7071341
userName: georgeb

We will now create an empty example of the Individual magnificence, populate it by means of studying again from the Cord, and print it out:

Individual p2 = new Individual();
Machine.out.println("p2: " + p2);

The output displays that the brand new object has the proper state:

p2: !Individual {
  identify: George Ball,
  timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:13:29.388,
  userName: georgeb

The code that demonstrates this can also be discovered within the Chronicle Cord Github repo.

Manner Writers and Readers

Typically we’d believe gadgets which are serialised and deserialised the use of Cord to carry information of a few sort, related to our utility. When the use of Chronicle Queue as a message delivery, those gadgets would shape the payload of messages, and we name them Information Switch Items (DTOs). 

Then again it’s imaginable to have a look at this capability from a distinct point of view. The serialised type of the Individual object contained the homes of the article in YAML shape:

identify: George Ball
timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:11:54.7071341
userName: georgeb

If we generalise this additional, we’ve a method of encoding and sending, the use of Cord, a request to invoke one way with a provided argument. Because of the unidirectional nature of our message delivery, those strategies must be void, i.e. they can’t go back a price. Let’s say this, believe an Interface that accommodates definitions of operations to be carried out on Individual gadgets. The implementation(s) of the process(s) isn’t equipped right now.:

public interface PersonOps {
   void addPerson(Individual p);

Just one way is specified right here, for simplicity. It’s meant to take a unmarried argument which is of kind Individual, and upload it to a few assortment. In response to the former instance, we will be expecting an example of this sort to be encoded to a Cord as

addPerson: {
  identify: George Ball,
  timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:11:54.7071341,
  userName: georgeb

and decoded to a sort that may be thought to be a  way invocation:

       Marshallable.fromString(Individual.magnificence, "" +
               "identify: Alice Smithln" +
               "timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:11:54.7071341n" +
               "userName: alicesn"));

Chronicle Cord gives the potential to encode and decode way invocations identical to this. The sender makes use of a kind known as MethodWriter, and the receiver makes use of a kind known as MethodReader. 

For instance, for the PersonOps kind proven above, we will create one way creator:

ultimate PersonOps personOps = yWire.methodWriter(PersonOps.magnificence);

The results of this system name is an example of the interface kind that has a stub implementation of the process addPerson(), which encodes the request to the Cord. We will invoke this system as


personOps.addPerson(new Individual()
       .identify("Bob Singh")

and if we take a look at the Cord, we can see the invocation request encoded as a message:

addPerson: {
  identify: Alice Smith,
  timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:11:54.7071341,
  userName: alices
addPerson: {
  identify: George Ball,
  timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:28:47.466,
  userName: georgeb
addPerson: {
  identify: Bob Singh,
  timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:28:48.3001121,
  userName: bobs

On the receiving facet, we will create a MethodReader object, offering an implementation of the process this is to be invoked upon deciphering:

MethodReader reader = yWire.methodReader(
       (PersonOps) p -> Machine.out.println("added " + p));

When the message is learn and decoded, the process can be known as:

for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++)

As the process is invoked, we can see the output from the decision to Machine.out.println():

added !Individual {
  identify: Alice Smith,
  timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:11:54.7071341,
  userName: alices

added !Individual {
  identify: George Ball,
  timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:28:47.466,
  userName: georgeb

added !Individual {
  identify: Bob Jones,
  timestampNS: 2022-11-11T10:28:48.3001121,
  userName: bobj

That is doubtlessly very tough, because it offers us a extremely versatile and effective approach of encoding occasions or messages, and associating them with handlers. The entire flexibility of Cord encoding is to be had – textual content codecs, or extremely effective binary codecs – as are the various several types of underlying transports with which Cord operates.

We’ll now take a look at how the addition of toughen for TCP/IP founded networking communique as a Cord delivery can prolong the probabilities even additional.


The brand new functions are in line with 3 abstractions:


A Chronicle Channel is an abstraction over a bidirectional, point-to-point connection between two elements. A Channel’s kind, specified when the Channel is created, defines the underlying delivery this is for use. The preliminary implementation helps TCP/IP the use of asynchronous sockets, or inner Channels that attach two endpoints inside the similar job. It’s meant to toughen further, upper degree  transports equivalent to GRPC, REST or Websockets.

A Channel carries Occasions, packaged as Chronicle Cord messages,  between those two elements. Channel sorts is also explained for various transports, despite the fact that the preliminary implementation helps TCP/IP or “native” (intra-process) channels.


A Context is a control container for Channels, caring for their configuration and lifecycle.


A handler is an element this is certain to a Channel and defines how incoming occasions are processed, and outgoing (outcome) occasions are transmitted. This permits more than a few varieties of consultation control to be carried out. A lot of pre-defined handlers are to be had, and further handlers may also be explained. 

A handler is related to a channel all over the status quo of a connection, typically by means of the “initiator” of the relationship (ie. the customer).

Operating with Channels

Let’s take a look at some examples of those options in motion.

Instance 1:  Hi, Global

Following usual apply, the primary instance is person who merely echoes a “Hi” message. The numbered feedback point out attractions within the code and correspond to the record underneath:

public magnificence Channel1ReadWrite {

   personal static ultimate String URL = Machine.getProperty("url", "tcp://:3334");                                        // ===> (1)

   public static void primary(String[] args) {

       attempt (ChronicleContext context = ChronicleContext.newContext(URL).identify("Channel1");                // ===> (2)
           ChronicleChannel channel = context.newChannelSupplier(new EchoHandler()).get()) {

           Jvm.startup().on(Channel1.magnificence, "Channel arrange on port: " + channel.channelCfg().port());

           Says says = channel.methodWriter(Says.magnificence);                                                                      // ===> (3)
           says.say("Neatly hi there");

           StringBuilder eventType = new StringBuilder();                                                                       // ===> (4)
           String textual content = channel.readOne(eventType, String.magnificence);
           Jvm.startup().on(Channel1.magnificence, ">>>> " + eventType + ": " + textual content);


  1. Crucial to the setup of the channel is a URL string. Lately most effective TCP/IP is to be had as a delivery however extra can and can be supported sooner or later.  The semantics of this string as understood by means of Chronicle Channel setup is summarised within the following desk

URL layout

That means


Channel inner to job


Channels settle for incoming requests, use port 0 to make use of an ephemeral port.


Shopper facet of channel

  1. We use try-with-resources to make certain that all essential elements we create are closed accurately once we are completed. First, we create the Context, which is able to set up the lifecycle and configuration of the channels. 

The context supplies a manufacturing unit from which new channels can also be created. When soliciting for a brand new channel, we specify which handler is for use to job incoming occasions. On this instance we use EchoHandler, which because the identify implies merely turns the development round and sends it again to the sender.

The entire essential paintings to arrange a server-side socket for this connection is finished by means of the manufacturing unit. The returned channel is to be had for use.

  1. Be mindful TCP/IP is a complete duplex protocol, so the channel we’ve is bi-directional. So we will ship an occasion throughout the channel, the use of a MethodWriter generated from the next kind:

public interface Says extends Syncable {
   void say(String say);


Says says = channel.methodWriter(Says.magnificence);
says.say("Neatly hi there");

  1. We will then use Chronicle Cord to learn the echoed occasion again from the channel and show its main points.

When this straightforward instance is administered, we will see the output:

[main] INFO run.chronicle.twine.channel.demo1.Channel1 - Channel arrange on port: 3334
[main] INFO run.chronicle.twine.channel.demo1.Channel1 - >>>> say: Neatly hi there

Instance 2: Separate Shopper and Server

The primary instance is slightly synthetic because it combines the customer facet and server facet capability right into a unmarried job. Whilst this can be excellent for trying out or debugging functions, in fact, we need to separate all sides into their very own job. Let’s take a look on the server following this department:

public magnificence ChannelService {
   static ultimate int PORT = Integer.getInteger("port", 4441);

   public static void primary(String[] args) throws IOException {
       Machine.setProperty("port", "" + PORT); // set if now not set.

Realize that that is now very quick, due to our having used the software magnificence ChronicleGatewayMain, which encapsulates the capability of putting in the server-side (a channel acceptor), eliminating boilerplate code and the use of default settings up to imaginable.

Code for the customer facet is proven underneath, and the numbered feedback once more illustrate attractions:

public magnificence ChannelClient {

   personal static ultimate String URL = Machine.getProperty("url", "tcp://localhost:" + ChannelService.PORT);        // ===> (1)

   public static void primary(String[] args) {

       attempt (ChronicleContext context = ChronicleContext.newContext(URL).identify("ChannelClient");                  // ===> (2)
            ChronicleChannel channel = context.newChannelSupplier(new EchoHandler()).get()) {

           Jvm.startup().on(ChannelClient.magnificence, "Channel arrange on port: " + channel.channelCfg().port());
           Says says = channel.methodWriter(Says.magnificence);                                                                             // ===> (3)
           says.say("Neatly hi there");

           StringBuilder eventType = new StringBuilder();
           String textual content = channel.readOne(eventType, String.magnificence);

           Jvm.startup().on(ChannelClient.magnificence, ">>>> " + eventType + ": " + textual content);

  1. The URL string accommodates a hostname and port quantity, which informs the channel advent good judgment that we’re beginning the setup of the channel from the customer facet, offering the overall deal with of the acceptor for the provider.

  1. The Context is ready up as an initiator/consumer, on account of the URL string layout. When making a channel from an initiator/consumer context, we specify which handler for use on the receiving finish. This bureaucracy a part of the asked channel specification, which is distributed to the provider all over the setup of the channel. 

It can be crucial for the provider to have the essential code for the handler – for safety causes no code is distributed around the community at any level – differently channel setup will fail.  

  1. As soon as the channel is established, the code is equal to within the first instance.

When each consumer and server packages are run the output is equal to above:

[main] INFO run.chronicle.twine.channel.demo2.ChannelClient - Channel arrange on port: 4441
[main] INFO run.chronicle.twine.channel.demo2.ChannelClient - >>>> say: Neatly hi there

Instance 3: Easy Request/Reaction Interplay

Previous we noticed methods to use Cord’s MethodReader and MethodWriter to enforce some way of passing requests to request the invocation of strategies out of doors of the present job. Now we will prolong this case to reveal the facility, the use of Cord over a TCP/IP Channel, to enforce elementary Request/Reaction communique with a provider, in a way this is very similar to Far flung Process Name.  

The provider itself is unassuming, offering only a unmarried way – the purpose this is to reveal the stairs had to assemble the provider and get admission to it.

There are 4 portions to this case:

  1. The Carrier, which implements the trade good judgment relating to message sorts for enter and for output.
  2. The Channel Handler, which connects the Carrier to the underlying Channel infrastructure.
  3. The Carrier Driving force, which acts as an entrypoint to the server facet, developing and configuring each provider and Channel handler.
  4. The Shopper, a separate utility, which creates and sends a request, and receives the reaction.

The Carrier

The provider is explained the use of an interface that accommodates way signatures representing the supported requests. We outline the provider interface as

public interface PersonOps {
   void addPerson ( Individual p );

The Individual kind is as explained previous. 

Messaging in Chronicle is unidirectional, so provider API strategies are void. We subsequently wish to outline a 2nd interface that defines the message for used for the reaction:

public interface ResponseSender {
   void reply(ReqStatus standing);

The ReqStatus kind signifies the good fortune or differently of the process, and is explained as:

public enum ReqStatus {

The 2 interfaces are stressed out in combination to shape a “handler” for incoming requests:

public magnificence PersonOpsProcessor implements PersonOpsHandler {

   personal brief ResponseSender responder;                                                  // ===> (1)

   public PersonOpsProcessor responder(ResponseSender responseSender) {        // ===> (2)
       this.responder = responseSender;
       go back this;

   public void addPerson(Individual p) {                                                                  // ===> (3)

  1. This box will hang a connection with the output for this provider to which reaction messages are posted.
  2. On this instance, the ResponseSender is injected the use of a setter way, this is also completed via a constructor.
  3. That is the implementation of the process within the PersonOps interface, which for simplicity sends a a success standing reaction.

The Channel Handler

Recall from the dialogue of ideas that the Channel Handler is answerable for processing messages/occasions which are handed on its related Channel. 

For this case we wish to outline a category that may dispatch incoming messages at the Channel to the fitting handler way within the provider, and fasten the provider output to the Channel :

public magnificence PersonSvcHandler extends AbstractHandler<PersonSvcHandler> {                  // ===> (1)

   personal ultimate PersonOpsHandler personOpsHandler;                                                       // ===> (2)

   public PersonSvcHandler(PersonOpsHandler personOpsHandler) {                                  // ===> (3)
       this.personOpsHandler = personOpsHandler;

   public void run(ChronicleContext context, ChronicleChannel channel) {                           // ===> (4)

   public ChronicleChannel asInternalChannel(ChronicleContext context,                             // ===> (5)
                                                                          ChronicleChannelCfg channelCfg) {
       throw new UnsupportedOperationException("Inside Channel now not supported");


  1. The bottom magnificence is the place generic platform capability is carried out. Our magnificence will provide the essential specifics for our provider.
  2. A connection with the implementation of the handler strategies.
  3. The PersonOpsHandler implementation is injected into the handler throughout the constructor. 
  4. When a brand new channel connection is initiated, an example of our handler is began, with the essential MethodReader and MethodWriter gadgets initialised appropriately. That is encapsulated within the run() way and occurs for each channel connection this is made.
  5. On this instance magnificence we’ve explicitly disallowed the advent of an example of this handler to run with an Inside channel.

The Carrier Driving force Elegance

Having finished those steps, the motive force magnificence for the provider is simple, and is kind of similar to the former instance, the use of the software magnificence ChronicleGatewayMain to create the configure the Channel.:

public magnificence PersonSvcMain {

   static ultimate int PORT = Integer.getInteger("port", 7771);

   public static void primary(String... args) throws IOException {
       Machine.setProperty("port", "" + PORT);

The Shopper

We will enforce a easy consumer for our Individual provider by means of putting in a Channel after which issuing requests to our provider.

public magnificence PersonClient {

   personal static ultimate String URL = Machine.getProperty("url", "tcp://localhost:" + PersonSvcMain.PORT);                           // ===> (1)

   public static void primary(String[] args) {

       attempt (ChronicleContext context = ChronicleContext.newContext(URL)) {

           ChronicleChannel channel = context.newChannelSupplier(new PersonSvcHandler(new PersonOpsProcessor()))      // ===> (2)

           ultimate PersonOps personOps = channel.methodWriter(PersonOps.magnificence);                                                               // ===> (3)

           Individual thePerson = new Individual()


           StringBuilder evtType = new StringBuilder();
           ReqStatus reaction = channel.readOne(evtType, ReqStatus.magnificence);

           Jvm.startup().on(PersonClient.magnificence, " >>> " + evtType + ": " + reaction);

  1. The URL is by means of default configured with the port quantity that used to be configured within the server.
  2. The channel is created and an example of our customized handler injected. 
  3. As soon as created, we will use the channel’s MethodWriter solution to generate the stub strategies that may ship the accurately serialised occasions to the provider.  


Chronicle Cord has had new options added to allow communique with different elements throughout a TCP/IP community. This report has described the fundamental concepts of the way this will likely paintings inside Cord and described some easy examples. 

There are lots of extra use instances for this speedy and effective communique inside allotted services and products. Further examples are to be had throughout the Chronicle Cord GitHub mission., along the examples from this text.

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